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Dave L. Spanish Vocabulary T Includes bibliographical references. Spanish language—Vocabulary. Spanish language—Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. Spanish language—Etymology. Vowel Changes: e S ie, o S ue, etc.
Verbs Ending in -cer and Related Words D. While such lists can be useful for reviewing and maintaining vocabulary, they often are of far less value to students seeking to acquire new vocabulary, or at least to those not blessed with photographic memories.
While extensive use of lists is also made, there is a crucial difference: in the large majority of cases, Spanish words are associated explicitly with related English words, an association that can greatly facilitate learning and retaining these words. As an example, the correspondence amable Spanish —amiable English can be used as the basis for learning a number of other Spanish words: T It is in fact recommended that one move back and forth between the sections to provide a greater element of variety.
English-Spanish, Spanish-English dictionary
Part I provides general background material on the origins of Spanish and begins the process of presenting Spanish vocabulary. Part IV treats in a more discursive manner various themes, including Germanic and Arabic words, numbers, time, food and animals, the family, the body, and politics.
CL conj. DRAE eccl. OED OldEng. RAE sing.
Nouns ending in -ista are assumed to be both masculine and feminine. All other nouns are assumed to be masculine. Thus: rosa tema m. This will frequently be highlighted by using the abbreviation m.
Thus: atleta m. These will also be marked with m. For example: maratón m. Nonetheless, in terms of its vocabulary, English is overwhelmingly Latinate; in the Shorter Oxford Dictionary, for example, there are more than twice as many LatinRomance words as Germanic ones. What you would normally do is look them up in the dictionary and, probably, not remember their definitions certainly not all of them the next time you see them.
Each of these characteristics is in fact a very frequent occurrence in Spanish, as we will see in Part III. We note also that the English equivalents of the Latin roots do not always have the identical meaning of the corresponding Spanish word, but in all cases they are at least suggestive and, more importantly, easy to remember.
We may not know too much about lactose, but most of us know that it is in milk and that some people have problems digesting it hence lactose-free milk in the supermarkets.
And how about derecho, and what is its possible connection with rectum? Finally, techo is easily remembered because it pro tects us from the elements.
A similar process occurred in Spanish, giving these correspondences: Spanish English restringir restricción restrictivo to restrict, to restrain restriction restrictive constreñir constricción constreñimiento constrictivo constrictor to constrain, to constrict constriction constraint, constriction constrictive constrictor e.
It subsequently entered Spanish sixteenth century and English seventeenth century with this latter definition. Thus, T Old French estrece from popular Latin strictia was the source of English stress fourteenth century , and six centuries later this was reexported to Spanish: estrés stress Finally, the Spanish verb that corresponds directly to Latin stringere is estreñir, cognate with English strain.
However, in Spanish the compression generally refers to an altogether different part of the body: constipar constipado to catch cold suffering from a cold, a cold so that a Spanish speaker suffering from a cold is likely to receive an altogether different remedy from an English-speaking pharmacist than from a Spanishspeaking one. We can see from the above examples that words that share a common Latin origin often evolve along different paths, in both form and meaning.
Taking English as an example, we know that nearly every word has a minimum of two definitions, and in many cases substantially more. Suppose that when we meet, I use only odd-numbered definitions and you use only even-numbered ones. Will we understand each other?
Probably not, or if so, only with great difficulty.
Suppose now that I alter the form of my words in reasonably systematic ways, say replacing ct with ch, cul by j, t by d whenever it occurs between vowels, etc. We will now have created languages as far apart as Spanish and Italian—in fact, all of the changes mentioned above occurred during the evolution of Latin to Spanish. Lesson of the story: never assume that you can figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word from its form alone.
In the majority of cases, they have an important story to tell, which is generally that one language has chosen to focus on, let us say, the even-numbered definitions, and the other, on the odd-numbered ones. First, consider Spanish arena. Sand was frequently used to cover the ground in coliseums and other sporting venues, the better to absorb the blood of gladiators. If one actually looks in the dictionary, one will see that there is another definition of English actual: Being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current AHCD.
Spanish largo and related words also maintain some of the elements of the original definition, as is the case in English.
Frequently, the corresponding English word is part of the definition of the Spanish, e. In some sections, the English correspondences are systematically highlighted in italics; in other sections, particularly where the large majority of words correspond to English words e. Money or gifts bestowed. Each Latin noun or adjective had up to six different singular forms, depending on the manner in which it was used in the sentence subject, direct object, etc.
But one should bear in mind that regional differences in Spanish vocabulary are substantially greater than those that exist in the English-speaking world, and a word or definition used in one country or region is often unknown in another. For the large group of nouns whose nominatives end in -o with accusatives ending in -onem e.
Adjective definitions if any will precede noun ones, and the reader can be guided by the corresponding use of the words in English. Thus: plano adj.
In some cases, both adjective and noun meanings will be provided, but often only the adjective sense will be shown. Thus, ciego blind rather than ciego adj. This is indicated as follows: economía economy, economics, savings pl.
In other cases, a noun is used only in the plural, e. When different spellings seem to be equally acceptable, they are separated by a comma: vídeo, video video, VCR On occasions, synonyms are explicitly indicated by the symbol : confort comfort comodidad Confort and comodidad are thus synonyms.
Thus for bate, bate Eng. Me levanto a las seis. I raise my hand. I get up at six from the bed.
The definitions presented do not explicitly distinguish between pronominal and regular uses. Thus: levantar to raise, to lift, to get up from bed, etc. The reasons for this are related to the following not-so-trivial question: How many letters are there in the Spanish alphabet? Others state that ch and ll, previously treated as separate letters, no longer qualify for such special treatment. The combination rr is not considered to be a separate letter. The letter ñ continues to be treated separately for alphabetization, thus representing a further victory in its campaign for survival.
Word Origins and Trivial Pursuits Many times a word presents difficulties because it seems to embody concepts that are completely unrelated. For example, if one looks up the Spanish word moral in the dictionary, one is likely to find the following definitions: moral adj. Perhaps a moral person is one who eats black mulberries?
In this case, as in many others, the explanation lies in the fact that two or more separate words have become homonyms, each having its own English correspondent. The presentation in the text seeks to shed light on such potential conundrums. Apart from their pedagogical value, some if not all readers may find them of interest in their own right. How is an apricot precocious?
Limpia tus genes - Ben Lynch
What did algebraists do before they began to solve equations? What is the meaning of the expression below the pyramid on the back of the U. Today is Monday the tenth. My cousin is arriving in ocho días. She is left-handed. On what day of the week will my cousin arrive? How many days are there in a Spanish fortnight?
In what respect can it be said that despondency is an inherent element of a Spanish marriage? Should pencils and vanilla ice cream be X-rated? What is the inherent relationship between baldness and chauvinism?
What is the meaning of the expression above the mysterious eye on the back of the U. What is the connection between starboard and the stars?
Why do doctors call a kidney stone a calculus? What is the relation between an American hoosegow and a Spanish judge? What was the modus operandi of a Roman plagiarist?
In terms of grammar, the structure of the language would have changed almost beyond recognition. John and Jane Doe, native English speakers of the twenty-first century, should find it far easier to learn Spanish.
The differences between Spanish and English grammar are relatively minor—certainly in comparison with the vast difference between the grammar of either one and Latin.